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Single dopant control
In the past few years it has become possible to control the incorporation of doping atoms in a semiconductor material at the atomic level and to assess and even manipulate individual doping atoms. In this exciting workshop for the first time we brought people together working on single doping atoms with various techniques and approaches and in different semiconductor materials. The meeting was fully booked with over 75 participants from all over the globe with 19 extended presentations by the leading international experts. The workshop focused on 4 common problems and included these explicitly in the program by devoting a day to eacho f them. These problems are:
“The interaction of a dopant with its environment”. The properties of a dopant are strongly influenced by its environment. This affects properties like the spectrum, orbital and spin relaxation times, quantum coherence times, coupling to photons and phonons. The complexity of this problem is further enhanced when the dopant is not in a bulk environment, which is required to electrically influence a dopant in a device. This problem holds for all 3 systems and the combination of the different fields and techniques will lead to cross-fertilization.
“Deterministic doping”. Although most of the researchers currently work with randomly placed dopants in the semiconductor, scalable applications require controlled placement of the dopants. In recent years there has been great progress in single ion implantation and bottom-up dopant placement. In this case the three material systems are at very different development stages. Clear links between the Si and NV community were identified and links to the Mn system in II/VI and III/V materials were made.
“Modeling”. The predictive power of dopant modeling (in nano-devices) greatly advanced over the last few years. The techniques used range from effective mass models, via tight binding to DFT calculations. This session highlighted successful approaches in link with experiments and discussed their different strengths. The goal was to transfer the knowledge of working approaches from one material system to another and to identify obstacles that can be resolved in collaboration.
“Devices and applications”. Ultimately we utilize the unique properties of dopants in device applications. This session will ranged from quantum applications to the impact of dopants on conventional device performance combined with theory work. The goal was to identify new functionality of dopants as well as the ability to understand device performance at room temperature based on quantum measurements.
This workshop was very instrumental for a first review on single dopants in semiconductors that appeared in January 2011 in Nature Materials.
Joaquin Fernandez Rossier (Alicante, Spain)
Paul Koenraad (Eindhoven, The Netherlands)
Sven Rogge (Delft, The Netherlands)