The increasing sensitivity of telescopes and dedicated instruments is shifting the observability of exoplanets from giant, Jupiter-like bodies towards smaller, rocky ones. Information about the internal composition of these planets can be derived from their mass, size, and stellar spectra. In the near future, observations will also allow for the characterization of the atmospheres of rocky planets. Combining observational data with geophysical models to simulate the joint evolution of a star and its planets will be crucial to understand new observations in the context of planetary evolution. This workshop will bring together participants from all over the world with backgrounds in planetary formation and volatile delivery, planetary interior structure and evolution, as well as observation and characterisation of planetary atmospheres. The overarching question that will be addressed during the workshop by this diverse pool of experts is: How can we maximize our understanding of the formation and evolution of rocky planets using future measurements of atmospheric spectra? On the one hand, models of planetary structure and evolution will help to put atmospheric observations into context. On the other hand, a better sense of the diversity and accuracy of observations will guide the development of models able to effectively exploit the continuously growing observational record.